The efficacy of miswak (Kayu sugi) containing toothpaste on dental plaque accumulation

Nunung Rusminah, Indra Mustika Setia Pribadi, Komala Thillainathan


Introduction: Salvadora persica, also known as miswak (Kayu sugi), has been used as natural toothbrushing compound for centuries. Many research suggested that it contains medically beneficial properties such as abrasives, antiseptics, astringent, detergent, enzyme inhibitors, and fluoride. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of miswak containing toothpaste on dental plaque accumulation. Methods: The total of 30 subjects consisted of male students of Bandung Institute of Technology, aged between 18 – 26 years old. The plaque value was measured using the Turesky Gilmore & Glickman Index Modification of Quigley & Hein at baseline (day 0), day 1, day 3, and day 7. Commercial toothpaste (Pepsodent®) was used as the control group in this pre and post-test designed, single-blind study. Results: After analysed using the paired t-test, the data showed that the mean plaque index of respondents using miswak and non-miswak containing toothpaste from baseline until day 7, were 1.70/1.19 and 1.61/1.44 respectively (p < 0.05). The mean plaque index reduction of respondents using miswak and non-miswak containing toothpaste from baseline until day 7, were 0.39 and 0.25 respectively (p = 0.00). Conclusion: Both kinds of toothpaste were able to reduce plaque, but miswak containing toothpaste was found to be more effective in reducing dental plaque accumulation.


Kayu sugi, miswak, plaque index, toothpaste.

Full Text:



Darout IA, Albandar JM. Skaug N. Periodontal status of adult Sudanese habitual users of miswak chewing Sticks or toothbrushes. Acta Odontol Scand. 2000 Feb;58(1):25-30. Avaliable From:

Tubaishat RS, Darby ML, Bauman DB, Box CE. Use of miswak versus toothbrushes: oral health beliefs and behaviours among a sample of Jordanian adults. Int J Dent Hyg. 2005 July-Aug;3(3):126-136. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2005.00136.x

Chaurasia A, Patil R, Nagar A. Miswak in oral cavity - An update. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2013 May-Aug;3(2):98-101. doi: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2012.09.004. Epub 2012 Sep 21. Avaliable From:

Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani

Ardakani FE. Efficacy of Miswak (salvadora persica) in preventing dental caries. 2010 May;5(2):459-503 DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.25074 Avaliable Form:

Carranza AF, Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR. Clinical Periodontology. 10th Ed. Missouri: W.B. Saunders Company. 2006. P. 68-69. Avaliable Form:

Darout IA, Albandar JM, Skaug N, Ali RW. Salivary microbiota levels in relation to periodontal status, experience of caries and miswak use in Sudanese adults. J Clin Periodontol. 2002 Oct;29(5):411-420. Avaliable Form:

Raed IAS, Almas K . Miswak (chewing stick): A cultural and scientific heritage. Saudi Dental Journal. 1999;11(2):80-88. DOI:

Nordin, FN. A Review on the Sunnah of Miswak (Salvadora Persica) and its Potentiality to Improve Oral Health. Revelation and Science. 2012;02(1): 33-41. Avaliable Form:

Patel VK, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H. A novel herbal preparation as a gum massage, dentifrice, anti-inflammatory and antiplaque agent (review and applied study). 2005;38(4):405-414.

Mahanani ES, Samuel SV. Miswak (salvadora persica) as a cleansing teeth. Mutiara Medika. 2007;7(1):38-42. Avaliable From:

Almas K, Al-Zeid Z. The immediate antimicrobial effect of a toothbrush and Miswak o cariogenic bacteria:a clinical study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2004 Feb 15 ;5(1):105-14. Avaliable From:


Article metrics

Abstract views : 0 | views : 0


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Visitor Stat

Creative Commons License
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License